This project aims to contribute to the improvement of people’s rhetorical literacy and critical thinking skills by developing procedures for assessing argumentation. While these procedures are primarily based on the Philosophy of Argument, insights from fact-checking, science communication, and the philosophy of science and technology also feed into their design. By measuring the target audience’s sophistication and competence in engaging with natural argumentative discourse, the procedures for argument-checking will be tailored for usage by various audiences in various cognitive environments. The procedures are also transformed into guidelines for Annotating Argumentation in the Wild and implemented into software in the KRINO Project.

Activities and publications

Journal Article – Russo, F., Schliesser, E., & Wagemans, J.H.M. (2023). Connecting ethics and epistemology of AI. AI & Society: Knowledge, Culture and Communication. DOI: –> MORE INFO

Video – Russo, F., & Wagemans, J.H.M. (2022). Argument-checking en kunstmatige intelligentie (in Dutch). Video presentation during the lecture event “From fact-checking to argument-checking”. Spui 25, Amsterdam, May 23, 2022.

Argument-checking en kunstmatige intelligentie

Workshop – Fourth Workshop on the CMAS. Developing the Comprehensive Measure of Argumentation Skills (CMAS). University of Amsterdam, September 22, 2022.

Workshop – Third Workshop on the CMAS. Developing the Comprehensive Measure of Argumentation Skills (CMAS). University of Amsterdam, July 4, 2022.

Lecture event – On May 23, the lecture event “From fact-checking to argument-checking” took place at Spui 25 in Amsterdam. José PlugRuben BraveFederica Russo, and Jean Wagemans presented their research, and Ella van Vloten moderated the event.

Journal Article – Hinton, M., & Wagemans, J.H.M. (2022). Evaluating reasoning in natural arguments: A procedural approachArgumentation, 36, 61-84. –> MORE INFO

Workshop – Second Workshop on the CMAS. Developing the Comprehensive Measure of Argumentation Skills (CMAS). University of Amsterdam, April 21, 2022.

Conference Paper – Brave, R., Russo, F., Wagemans, J.H.M. (2022). Argument-Checking: A Critical Pedagogy Approach to Digital Literacy. In F. Ciracì, G. Miglietta & C. Gatto (Eds.), AIUCD 2022 – Culture digitali. Intersezioni: filosofia, arti, media. Proceedings della 11a conferenza nazionale, Lecce, 2022 (pp. 245-248). Associazione per l’Informatica Umanistica e la Cultura Digitale. –> MORE INFO

Workshop – First Workshop on the CMAS. Developing the Comprehensive Measure of Argumentation Skills (CMAS). University of Amsterdam, January 25, 2022. MORE INFO

Web Content – Wagemans, J.H.M. (2021). Argument Type Identification Procedure (ATIP) – Version 4. Published online December 30, 2021. MORE INFO

Conference Talk – M. Hinton & J.H.M. Wagemans (2021). An Analysis of an Argumentative Text Produced by the GPT-3 AI Text Generator. Seventh International Conference on Philosophy of Language and Linguistics (PhiLang 2021). ONLINE, University of Łódź, Poland, May 14, 2021.

Guest Lecture – ARCade, the newly formed student association of the MA Communication and Information at the University of Amsterdam, organizes a guest lecture with Jean Wagemans on April 30, 2021. In the lecture, Wagemans will present the latest developments in “argument-checking”, an extension of fact-checking that applies insights from argumentation theory in the combat against misinformation and disinformation. Although fact-checking is a highly valuable activity that answers to the professional duties and civic responsibilities of journalists and other people involved, its scope is fairly limited in that it assesses the truth of a single factual claim. In public discourse, however, such claims are often embedded in argumentation, i.e., they function as reasons put forward in support of other claims. After having indicated why there is a need for extending the activity of fact-checking to argument-checking, Wagemans will explain the theoretical background of the procedure for argument-checking, illustrate its working through an example, and talk about a recent collaboration with Make Media Great Again (MMGA), an organization developing methods for quality control of online news items.

Book Chapter – Plug, H.J., & Wagemans, J.H.M. (2020). From fact-checking to rhetoric-checking: Extending methods for evaluating populist discourse. In I.M. van der Geest, H. Jansen & B. van Klink (Eds.), Vox populi: Rhetoric of populism (pp. 236-252). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Web Publication – Wagemans, J.H.M. (2020). Argument Type Identification Procedure (ATIP) – Version 3. Published online February 21, 2020.